The Pharaohs

In this section, I’ll catalogue the Pharaohs who ruled Egypt during the period covered by the game, ie the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, spanning nearly two millenia from 2686BC to 1069BC. There is more information to be found in the General History section. Of course, the start is always good place to start (as my history teacher used to say), so let’s begin with:

The Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom lasted between 2686BC and 2181BC, and was a period of great change for Egypt. The governmental system was refined and made more efficient, and the concept of kingship being related to divinity gained prominence. During this time we also see the construction of the pyramids at Giza, as well as some elsewhere in Egypt. There was no single royal line in the Old Kingdom – in fact, there were 4 dynasties:

  • The 3rd Dynasty: 2686 – 2613 (5 Pharaohs)
  • The 4th Dynasty: 2613 – 2498 (6 Pharaohs)
  • The 5th Dynasty: 2498 – 2345 (9 Pharaohs)
  • The 6th Dynasty: 2345 – 2181 (4 Pharaohs)

And the Pharaohs were as follows.

The 3rd Dynasty

Sanakhte2686 – 2668 
Djoser2668 – 2649Brother of Sanakhte. Probably extended Egyptian rule as far south as Aswan and was responsible for building the Step Pyramid of Saqqara
Sekhemkhet2649 – 2643Built unfinished step pyramid at Saqqara
Khaba2643 – 2637Built “Layer Pyramid” a mile south of Giza
Huni2637 – 2613Perhaps built Meydum pyramid

The 4th Dynasty

Snefru2613 – 2589Son-in-law of Huni. Built 2 pyramids at Dahshur – “Red Pyramid” and “Bent Pyramid”, and the probably builder of the Meydum Pyramid.
Khufu (Cheops)2589 – 2566Built Great Pyramid at Giza.
Djedefre2566 – 2558First Pharaoh to call himself the son of the Sun god.
Khafre2558 – 2532Built Second Pyramid at Giza and (perhaps) the Great Sphinx
Menkaure2532 – 2504Built Third Pyramid at Giza (smallest)
Shepseskaf2504 – 2500 

The 5th Dynasty

Userkaf2498 – 2491Married the half-sister of Shepseskaf.
Built the solar temple of Abu-Gurob.
Sahure2491 – 2477 
Neferirkare2477 – 2467 
Shepseskare2467 – 2460 
Neferefre2460 – 2453 
Niuserre2453 – 2422 
Menkauhor2422 – 2414 
Djedkare2414 – 2375 
Unas2375 – 2345Built 1st pyramid to have decorated inside walls.

The 6th Dynasty

Teti2345 – 2333Moved pyramids back to Saqqara. Probably murdered by a bodyguard.
Pepi I2333 – 2283 
Merenre2283 – 2278 
Pepi II2278 – 2184Long reign resulted in decentralisation. Central rule broke down on his death.