The Pharaohs, part 1

In this section, I'll catalogue the Pharaohs who ruled Egypt during the period covered by the game, ie the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, spanning nearly two millenia from 2686BC to 1069BC. There is more information to be found in the General History section. Of course, the start is always good place to start (as my history teacher used to say), so let's begin with:

The Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom lasted between 2686BC and 2181BC, and was a period of great change for Egypt. The governmental system was refined and made more efficient, and the concept of kingship being related to divinity gained prominence. During this time we also see the construction of the pyramids at Giza, as well as some elsewhere in Egypt. There was no single royal line in the Old Kingdom - in fact, there were 4 dynasties:

  • The 3rd Dynasty: 2686 - 2613 (5 Pharaohs)
  • The 4th Dynasty: 2613 - 2498 (6 Pharaohs)
  • The 5th Dynasty: 2498 - 2345 (9 Pharaohs)
  • The 6th Dynasty: 2345 - 2181 (4 Pharaohs)

And the Pharaohs were as follows:

Name Dates Notes
The 3rd Dynasty
Sanakhte 2686 - 2668  
Djoser 2668 - 2649 Brother of Sanakhte. Probably extended Egyptian rule as far south as Aswan and was responsible for building the Step Pyramid of Saqqara
Sekhemkhet 2649 - 2643 Built unfinished step pyramid at Saqqara
Khaba 2643 - 2637 Built "Layer Pyramid" a mile south of Giza
Huni 2637 - 2613 Perhaps built Meydum pyramid
The 4th Dynasty
Snefru 2613 - 2589 Son-in-law of Huni. Built 2 pyramids at Dahshur - "Red Pyramid" and "Bent Pyramid", and the probably builder of the Meydum Pyramid.
Khufu (Cheops) 2589 - 2566 Built Great Pyramid at Giza.
Djedefre 2566 - 2558 First Pharaoh to call himself the son of the Sun god.
Khafre 2558 - 2532 Built Second Pyramid at Giza and (perhaps) the Great Sphinx
Menkaure 2532 - 2504 Built Third Pyramid at Giza (smallest)
Shepseskaf 2504 - 2500  
The 5th Dynasty
Userkaf 2498 - 2491 Married the half-sister of Shepseskaf. Built the solar temple of Abu-Gurob.
Sahure 2491 - 2477  
Neferirkare 2477 - 2467  
Shepseskare 2467 - 2460  
Neferefre 2460 - 2453  
Niuserre 2453 - 2422  
Menkauhor 2422 - 2414  
Djedkare 2414 - 2375  
Unas 2375 - 2345 Built 1st pyramid to have decorated inside walls.
The 6th Dynasty
Teti 2345 - 2333 Moved pyramids back to Saqqara. Probably murdered by a bodyguard.
Pepi I 2333 - 2283  
Merenre 2283 - 2278  
Pepi II 2278 - 2184 Long reign resulted in decentralisation. Central rule broke down on his death.

On to the Middle Kingdom